Mariotti, F.; Mumford, K.; Pena-Boquete, Y. (2017):”Education, Job Insecurity and the Within Country Migration of Couples”. IZA Journal of Migration.6:1

We consider the migration movements of power couples (couples where both members have at least a college degree), half-power and no-power couples within Australia. We explicitly allow for potential association of these movements with local labour market features including perceived job insecurity. The results support an urbanisation hypothesis; partnered college graduates like to live in major cities regardless of their gender or the qualifications of their partner
Full text


Mariotti, F.; Mumford, K.; Pena-Boquete, Y. (2016):”Job insecurity and labour supply within the household: Are Australian householders caring when it comes to risk sharing?”. Australian Journal of labour Economics. 19(2):77-90

We investigate perceived job security risk and the distribution of non-labour income between spouses in a household context. In the process, the restrictions implied by Beckerian-caring preferences in the Chiappori (2002) Collective model are considered, and estimates of the sharing rule are derived. The findings support the idea of household formation as a tool that caring partners use to share risk. Our results provide further insight as to how unemployment risk may affect interaction between Australian spouses
Full text


Rodriguez, M.; Pena-Boquete, Y.; Pardo-Fernández, J.C. (2016): “Revisiting Environmental Kuznets Curves through the energy price lens”. Energy Policy, 95: 32-41.

The goal of this paper is to provide new insights to elucidate the inconclusive results from the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) empirical literature. For the first time in empirical literature, an econometric analysis includes the relative prices for several energy sources. The paper provides strong evidence on the relevance of energy prices to CO2 emissions. Accordingly, one reason for the lack of agreement in the EKC literature may be the absence of energy prices in empirical exercises. The presence of relative energy price changes in the econometric specification confirms a monotonic and positive relationship between CO2 and gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, we may conclude that there is a decoupling process but without reaching any turning point on that relationship. The policy implications are straightforward. Direct climate action by policy makers is required to break the positive relationship between CO2 and GDP. That conclusion has been reinforced by the reduction of energy prices since the middle of 2014. Otherwise, the trend in energy prices may reverse the relative decarbonisation processes accounted for in recent years in major developed countries
Full text


Pena-Boquete, Y. (2016): “Further developments in the dynamics of female labour force participation”. Empirical Economics. 50 (2): 463-501

Papers attempting to explain female labour force participation either do not include women-specific variables or lack a proper dynamic specification. In this paper, we estimate a dynamic equation for female labour force participation in OECD countries from 1980 to 2007, taking into account several sets of variables. Moreover, we use our model to predict the results for 2007–2011, and we find that our model adjusts quite well to the actual data even with regard to the out-sample observations during the ongoing recession. In order to gain further insight concerning the interpretation and robustness of the equation, it is then compared to a similar equation for males. Our results show that real wage is one of the most relevant variables for female participation. Thus our specification could also be useful to endogenise labour force participation for a macro-labour market framework such as that of Layard et al. (1991, rev. 2005). However, women’s preferences, the overall level of education, and other structural factors are also important
Full text


Mariotti, F.; Mumford, K.; Pena-Boquete, Y. (2015): “Household Asset holding diversification in Australia” Australia Economic Review, 48(1): 43–64

We explore asset-holding diversification by Australian households; in particular, the household asset diversification participation decision (whether or not to diversify at all) is jointly estimated with the decision of how much to diversify. In so doing, recent literature on the modelling of proportions is combined with the growing body of research concerning household financial decision-making. Our findings are consistent with the participation of households operating in diverse financial markets being constrained by ineffective information conduits, influencing the decision of whether or not to diversify
Full text


Pena-Boquete, Y. (2014): “Did economic crises reduce the gender unemployment gap in the spanish labour market?” Revue de l’OFCE / Debates and policies, 33: 1-26

Over recent decades, women in Spain have continued to suffer a much higher unemployment rate than men, with a figure almost twice as high in some periods. This gap has however almost disappeared during the ongoing economic crisis. The aim of this paper is to explain this gender difference in the response of unemployment to the business cycle in Spain. The decomposition of changes in female employment shows the important role of the buffer effect in the 1992-1993 recession, while the segregation effect has been more significant in the ongoing recession. Estimation results support the segregation hypothesis: the concentration of women in less-cyclical sectors reduces their job losses during recession, so that the unemployment gap falls. However, the buffer effect for men appears to be greater than that for women, which is partly explained by more temporality in male-dominated industries
Full text


Pérez‐Dacal, D.; Pena‐Boquete Y.; Fernández M. (2014): “A Measuring Tourism Specialization: a Composite Indicator for the Spanish Regions” AlmaTourism (Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development), 5 (9): 35-74

Tourism sector is playing a key role in the development of a region, therefore tourism activities continue to growth in the last year despite the actual crisis (UNWTO 2011). Also, Spain maintains in the better positions of the world ranking. Furthermore, Tourism activities generate around 10% of GPD and represents 11.5% of total workers of the Spanish Economy in 2011. Nevertheless, this is not true for all the Spanish Regions. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the tourism specialization in the Spanish Provinces. In general previous literature supports the idea that tourism enhances economic growth (Neves & Maças 2008). Given that we are able to define Tourism specialization from very different perspectives, it is essential to review the previous literature and clarify which indicators are the best ones to measure tourism specialization. In order to measure tourism specialization from a wide point of view, we account for both demand and supply side variables for tourism sector, and amenities. We developed principal component analysis (PCA) in order to summarize the information provided by the different measures. It is essential to understand the relationship between tourism characteristics, amenities and its economic impacts for public policies and tourism managing
Full text


Pena-Boquete, Y.; Destefanis, S.; Fernández-Grela, M. (2010): “The distribution of gender wage discrimination in Italy and Spain: a comparison using the ECHP”. International Journal of Manpower, 31(2): 109-137

In this paper the aim is to focus on the individual distribution of gender wage discrimination in Spain and Italy, relying upon the development of Jenkins’ distributional approach proposed in Del Rio et al. The authors estimate the degree of individual discrimination for each employed woman and, relying on the decomposability properties of these estimates, assess the nature and extent of discrimination across various socio‐economic groupings. Some mechanisms inhibit the access of highly educated women to highly rewarding occupations in Italy, especially in the public sector, but not in Spain. While no doubt the appraisal of the glass ceiling in the Italian labour market will gain extensively from further research, some prima facie evidence is found highlighting the role of appointment and promotion procedures. A remarkable institutional divide characterises Spain and Italy in the domain of gender wage discrimination. Powerful political pressure along the lines of gender quotas for public employment has long been in place in Spain, while nothing of the kind has existed in Italy
Full text


Fernández, M.; Pena-Boquete, Y.; Pereira, X. (2009): “Labour conditions in the Spanish Hotels and Restaurants industry”. Tourism Analysis, 14(3): 293-312

The tourism and hotels and restaurants industries fall within the service sector and employ many people with different skills and capacities. As in other sectors, it is important to monitor employment and working conditions in this sector. However, there has not been any empirical systematic research into employment and wage conditions in the Spanish hotels and restaurants sector, partly because of the complexity and size of the sector. All studies that exist on salary levels in the tourism industry emphasize the fact that the hotels and restaurants sector is among the lowest paid business sectors and it employs a large proportion of women and nonqualified labor. Such characteristics generate lower pay and greater risk of gender discrimination. The aim of this article is to analyze these two negative aspects of labor market conditions in the hotels and restaurants industry in Spain and to discuss regional differences comparing tourism regions and nontourism regions. We show that low-wage incidence in the hotels and restaurants industry disappears with the tourism development of the sector, that is, it is lower in the tourism regions. Nevertheless, gender discrimination does not depend on the tourism or nontourism characterization of regions
Full text


Pena-Boquete, Y. (2009). “A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage. Discrimination: Spain vs. Galicia”. Paper in Regional Science 88 (1): 161-180.

This article aims to analyse the degree of female wage discrimination, its evolution over time and its distribution for socio-economic groups in the Galician region with respect to the rest of Spain. First we will try to explain the causes of the gender wage differential, and second, we will discuss the evolution of the wage gap between 1995 and 2002 in order to shed light on the potential factors of wage discrimination persistence in Galicia and Spain. Finally, we will examine the distribution of the degree of discrimination by using the discrimination curve and discrimination indexes
Full text

AYeconomics is an independent international research and consultancy organisation. AYeconomics promotes innovative research in economics and social science.

Contact us

Building Emprendia
Campus Life s / n
15782 Santiago de Compostela
A Coruña (Spain)

Phone: +34 981 111 076

Useful links